Causal theories and proposals for urban upgrades in historic city centres
Keywords:conservation, heritage value, preservation, urban morphology
Urban upgrades are instituted when there are designed improvements on one or more of the urban systems to increase efficiency and promote a better environment within the urban setting. While the choice of place and programme for an upgrade is often determined via political processes that are supposed to resolve socio-spatial dysfuntionalism, the undertones are ultimately for fiscal benefits for the government and sponsors. The historic city centres are at an advantage for attracting urban upgrade programmes as policy makers are unobtrusively guided by theoretical positions like urban bias, historic urban form and fabric, land economics and urban tourism to improve the centres. The centres by virtue of their centricity, not only in the spatial context, but in all aspects of urban life, also need to be understood as formidable starting points for urban change and morphology. This paper which is entirely based on information from literature analyses the concept of urban upgrades and why they are more common in historic city centres. It goes further to explain the common denominator of human behaviour as a catalyst for urban degeneration, policy position and redevelopment which will ultimately give rise to urban upgrades as a consequence in the morphology of the city. It is concluded with a literary discussion on the advantages of embracing sustainability and conservation in the execution of urban upgrades in the historic city centres for the purpose of urban tourism.
Adenaike FA, Opoko AP, Fadamiro JA. Urban Upgrading in the Historic City Core of Abeokuta, Nigeria: A Case for Inclusive Policies Towards Heritage Preservation. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2022;1054(1):012014. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/1054/1/012014
Ajobiewe T. Urban Development Theories and Policies : A Critical Review and Evaluation, 2020.
Anthony Adenaike F, Pearl Opoko A, Abidemi Kosoko R. Physical Planning Policies on Lagos Island and Their Effects on Urban Morphology. Urban and Regional Planning. 2020;5(2):50. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.urp.20200502.13
Arkaraprasertkul N. Gentrifying heritage: how historic preservation drives gentrification in urban Shanghai. International Journal of Heritage Studies. 2019;25(9):882-896. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2018.1460732
Askar R, Bragança L, Gervásio H. Adaptability of buildings: A critical review on the concept evolution. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 2021, 11(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104483
Asomani-boateng R. Borrowing from the past to sustain the present and the future : indigenous African urban forms, architecture, and sustainable urban development in contemporary Africa. Journal of Urbanism. 2011;4(3):239-262. https://doi.org/10.1080/17549175.2011.634573
Blanco I, Bonet J, Walliser A. Urban governance and regeneration policies in historic city centres : Madrid and Barcelona. Urban Research & Practice. 2011;4(3):326-343. https://doi.org/10.1080/17535069.2011.616749
Carpenter J. Decision-making in Regeneration Practice Urban Regeneration Governance Within a Theoretical Context, 2020, 47–60.
Dastgerdi AS, De Luca G. Specifying the significance of historic sites in heritage planning. Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage. 2018;18:29-39.
De Cesari C, Dimova R. Heritage, gentrification, participation: remaking urban landscapes in the name of culture and historic preservation. International Journal of Heritage Studies. 2019;25(9):863-869. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2018.1512515
Dempwolf S. (n.d.). An Evaluation of Recent Industrial Land Use Studies : Do Theory and History Matter In Practice?, 2010.
DeSilvey C, Harrison R. Anticipating loss: rethinking endangerment in heritage futures. International Journal of Heritage Studies. 2020;26(1):1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2019.1644530
Diaz-Parra I, Jover J. Overtourism, place alienation and the right to the city: insights from the historic centre of Seville, Spain. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 2021;29(2-3):158-175. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1717504
Ertan T, Eğercioğlu Y. Historic City Center Urban Regeneration: Case of Malaga and Kemeraltı, Izmir. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2016;223:601-607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.362
Farhan Sabeeh L, Abdelmonem MG, Nasar ZA. The urban transformation of traditional city centres: Holy Karbala as a case study. Archnet-IJAR. 2018;12(3):53-67. https://doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v12i3.1625
Farhan, Sabeeh Lafta, Alyasari HI, Akef VS, Zubaidi SL, Hashim KS. Analysing the Transformed Urban Patterns of Al-Najaf Historical Center: Urgent Issues and Possible Solutions. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2021;1058(1):012052. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012052
García-Amaya AM, Temes-Cordovez R, Simancas-Cruz M, Peñarrubia-Zaragoza MP. The Airbnb effect on areas subject to urban renewal in Valencia (Spain). International Journal of Tourism Cities. 2021;7(2):361-390. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJTC-03-2020-0041
Gibbons LV, Cloutier SA, Coseo PJ, Barakat A. Regenerative development as an integrative paradigm and methodology for landscape sustainability. Sustainability (Switzerland). 2018;10(6):1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061910
Highsmith AR. Demolition Means Progress. Journal of Urban History. 2009;35(3):348-368.
Jiang Y, Mohabir N, Ma R, Wu L, Chen M. Whose village? Stakeholder interests in the urban renewal of Hubei old village in Shenzhen. Land Use Policy. 2020;91(2019):104411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.104411
Kährik A, Temelová J, Kadarik K, Kubeš J. What attracts people to inner city areas? The cases of two post-socialist cities in Estonia and the Czech Republic. Urban Studies. 2016;53(2):355-372. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098014567444
Knippschild R, Zöllter C. Urban regeneration between cultural heritage preservation and revitalization: Experiences with a decision support tool in eastern germany. Land. 2021;10(6):1-12. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10060547
Korkmaz C, Balaban O. Sustainability of urban regeneration in Turkey: Assessing the performance of the North Ankara Urban Regeneration Project. Habitat International. 2020;95(2020):1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2019.102081.
Križnik B. Transformation of deprived urban areas and social sustainability: A comparative study of urban regeneration and urban redevelopment in Barcelona and Seoul. Urbani Izziv. 2018;29(1):83-92. https://doi.org/10.5379/urbani-izziv-en-2018-29-01-003.
Lai Y, Chen K, Zhang J, Liu F. Transformation of industrial land in urban renewal in Shenzhen, China. Land. 2020;9(10):1-21. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9100371.
Lestegás I, Lois-González RC, Seixas J. The global rent gap of Lisbon’s historic centre. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning. 2018;13(4):683-694. https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V13-N4-683-694.
Mehanna WAEH, Mehanna WAEH. Urban renewal for traditional commercial streets at the historical centers of cities. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 2019;58(4):1127–1143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2019.09.015.
Melo B, Cruz CO. Effect of Private Externalities in Urban Housing Renewal Investment: Empirical Assessment Using a Game-Theory Approach. Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 2017;143(4):04017015. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)up.1943-5444.0000401.
Mezini L, Nepravishta F. Heritage and renewal of the historical urban ensemble of Ulcinj castles. ISUFItaly 2018 4th International Congress: Reading Built Spaces Cities in the Making and Future Urban Form, 2018.
Michael AO, Isaac OO, Olusola OP. Urban renewal strategies in developing nations: A focus on Makoko, Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning. 2017;10(8):229-241. https://doi.org/10.5897/jgrp2017.0631.
Mihaila M. City Architecture as Cultural Ingredient. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;149:565-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.08.211.
Oyebode O. Insight into Urban Renewal as a Strategic Remedy for the Built Environment in Nigeria Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: construction engineering View project Construction Management project management View, 2018, September. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327437063.
Pushpita E, Kazi S, Fahmida N. Old vs new : The impact of globalization in the traditional house form of Sylhet, Bangladesh. Proceedings of the International Conference on ’Cities, People and Places’- ICCPP-2015 October 26th –27th, 2015, 1-17.
Radoslav R, Branea AM, Gǎman MS. Rehabilitation through a holistic revitalization strategy of historical city centres - Timisoara, Romania. Journal of Cultural Heritage. 2013;14(3SUPPL):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2012.11.031.
Ragheb A, Aly R, Ahmed G. Toward sustainable urban development of historical cities: Case study of Fouh City, Egypt. Ain Shams Engineering Journal. 2022, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2021.06.006.
Richardson H. W. (n.d.). The New Urban Economics, 2013.
Riera Pérez MG, Laprise M, Rey E. Fostering sustainable urban renewal at the neighborhood scale with a spatial decision support system. Sustainable Cities and Society. 2018;38:440-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2017.12.038.
Rousseau M. Re-imaging the city centre for the middle classes: Regeneration, gentrification and symbolic policies in “loser cities.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 2009;33(3):770-788. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2009.00889.x
Sallis JF, Bull F, Burdett R, Frank LD, Griffiths P, Giles-corti B, et al. Use of science to guide city planning policy and practice : how to achieve healthy and sustainable future cities. The Lancet. 2016;388:2936-2947. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30068-X.
Sgobbo A, Moccia FD. Synergetic Temporary Use for the Enhancement of Historic Centers: The Pilot Project for the Naples Waterfront. Techne. 2016;12:253-260. https://doi.org/10.13128/Techne-19360.
Shifa A, Xiao W. Urban Bias and the Political Economy of Rural Land Policy in China. SSRN Electronic Journal, 2020 December. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3700720.
Shin HB. Urban conservation and revalorisation of dilapidated historic quarters: The case of Nanluoguxiang in Beijing. Cities. 2010;27(Suppl. 1):S43-S54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2010.03.006.
Steinberg F. Conservation and rehabilitation of urban heritage in developing countries. Habitat International. 1996;20(3):463-475. https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-3975(96)00012-4.
Steinberg F. Revitalization of historic inner-city areas in asia: Urban Renewal Potentials in Jakarta, Hanoi and Manila. ICOMOS. 2011a;Theme 4(Session 2):836-848.
Steinberg F. Revitalization of historic inner-city areas in Asia. In ICOMOS 17th General Assembly, 2011b, Issue August. http://gso.gbv.de/DB=1.46/SET=7/TTL=1/SHW?FRST=1/PRS=HOL/HILN=888#888.
Tallon A. Urban Regeneration in the UK. In Urban Regeneration in the UK, 2020. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351030304.
Thatcher M. Introduction: The state and historic buildings: preserving ‘the national past.’ Nations and Nationalism. 2018;24(1):22-42. https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12372.
Troy L. The politics of urban renewal in Sydney’s residential apartment market. Urban Studies. 2018;55(6):1329-1345. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098017695459.
Umar SB, Said I. Conservation Challenges of Heritage Building Reuse in Nigeria: A review of decision-making models. Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies. 2018;4(12):16-36. https://doi.org/10.21834/aje-bs.v4i12.336.
Uzun CN. The impact of urban renewal and gentrification on urban fabric: Three cases in Turkey. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie. 2003;94(3):363-375. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9663.00263.
Vicente R, Ferreira TM, Mendes da Silva JAR. Supporting urban regeneration and building refurbishment. Strategies for building appraisal and inspection of old building stock in city centres. Journal of Cultural Heritage. 2015;16(1):1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2014.03.004.
Vidal L. Cooperative Islands in Capitalist Waters: Limited-equity Housing Cooperatives, Urban Renewal and Gentrification. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 2019;43(1):157-178. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12726.
Wang H, Zhang X, Skitmore M. Implications for sustainable land use in high-density cities: Evidence from Hong Kong. Habitat International. 2015;50:23-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.07.010.
Whitehand JWR, Morton NJ. Urban morphology and planning: The case of fringe belts. Cities. 2004;21(4):275-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2004.04.001.
Yoade AO. Evaluation of the Contents, Implementation and Success of Urban Renewal Projects in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Ibadan Journals Planning. 2018;7(2):11-20.
Yung EHK, Zhang Q, Chan EHW. Underlying social factors for evaluating heritage conservation in urban renewal districts. Habitat International. 2017;66:135-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2017.06.004.
Zheng HW, Shen GQ, Wang H, Hong J. Simulating land use change in urban renewal areas: A case study in Hong Kong. Habitat International. 2015;46:23-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.10.008.
Zhuang T, Qian QK, Visscher HJ, Elsinga MG, Wu W. The role of stakeholders and their participation network in decision-making of urban renewal in China: The case of Chongqing. Cities. 2019;92(March):47-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2019.03.014.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.