Quorum sensing Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus salivarius (prospects of prevention of dental caries in the future): narrative review


  • Indah Listiana Kriswandini Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Rahmi Yuna Undergraduate Student, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia


dental caries, quorum sensing, streptococcus mutans, lactobacillus salivarius, biofilm


Background: Dental caries is the most widespread infectious disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Streptococcus mutans is a major caries-causing microorganism in which its acidogenic and aciduric properties and its ability to adhere to tooth surfaces mediate its ability to produce extracellular polysaccharides from sucrose, all of which are virulence factors associated with the pathogenesis of dental caries. Lactobacillus salivarius is a type of lactic acid bacteria that can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria through communication between bacterial cells called Quorum Sensing (QS).

Purpose: To analyze the mechanism of Quorum Sensing Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus salivarius.

Method: This study uses a narrative review method. The literature sources used in compiling the review are digital databases such as Pubmed, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar regarding QS S. mutans and L. salivarius.

Discussion: Several literatures report that Lactobacillus salivarius can inhibit the growth of S. mutans through downregulation of genes that play a role in biofilm formation. The K35 and K43 proteins resulting from the activation of the L. salivarius gene work by inhibiting the expression of the LuxS gene resulting in downregulation of the VicK, VicR and ComC genes which act as coding for the glucosyltransferase (gtfBCD) gene for S. mutans biofilm formation and decreased autoinducer-2 signaling molecules. (AI-2) is used in the QS mechanism.

Conclusion: Lactobacillus salivarius in the oral cavity has prospects as an agent for preventing dental caries in the future by inhibiting the growth of S. mutans through the QS mechanism.


Cai S, Meng K, Liu P, Cao X, Wang G. Suppressive effects of gecko cathelicidin on biofilm formation and cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. Arch Oral Biol. 2021;129:105205.

Renye JA, Steinberg DH. Thermophilin 110 inhibits growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. Biotechnol Reports, 2021, 31.

Hasan S, Danishuddin M, Adil M, Singh K, Verma PK, Khan AU. Efficacy of E. officinalis on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans: a novel and alternative approach to suppress quorum-sensing mechanism. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40319.

Rocha FR, Regis WFM, Duarte S, Muniz FWMG, Rodrigues LKA. Effect of bioactive compounds on the regulation of quorum sensing network-associated genes and virulence in Streptococcus mutans—A systematic review. Arch Oral Biol, 2020, 119.

Sanpinit S, Moosigapong K, Jarukitsakul S, Jatutasri K, Issuriya A, Joycharat N, et al. Selected Thai traditional polyherbal medicines suppress the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans by disrupting its acid formation and quorum sensing abilities. South African J Bot. 2022;144:355-63.

Nurhayati Abdullah H, Mohamad S, Wantaib WR, Jaffar N. Quorum sensing related activity of aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in periodontal disease: A review. Biomed. 2021;41(2):174-80.

Salas-Jara MJ, Ilabaca A, Vega M, García A. Biofilm forming lactobacillus: new challenges for the development of probiotics. Microorganisms, 2016, 4(3).

Bedoya-Correa CM, Rincón-Rodríguez RJ, Parada-Sanchez MT. Acidogenic and aciduric properties of Streptococcus mutans serotype c according to its genomic variability. European Journal of Oral Sciences. 2021;129(6):e12824.

Zhang Q, Ma Q, Wang Y, Wu H, Zou J. Molecular mechanisms of inhibiting glucosyltransferases for biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans. International Journal of Oral Science. 2021;13(1):30.

Leung V, Dufour D, Lévesque CM. Death and survival in Streptococcus mutans: differing outcomes of a quorum-sensing signaling peptide. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:1176.

Kim SR, Yeon KM. Quorum Sensing as Language of Chemical Signals. Compr Anal Chem. 2018;81:57-94.

Man LL, Xiang DJ. LuxS-mediated quorum sensing system in Lactobacillus plantarum NMD-17 from koumiss: induction of plantaricin MX in co-cultivation with certain lactic acid bacteria. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2021;66(5):855-71.

Sen T, Karmakar S, Sarkar R. Evaluation of Natural Products against Biofilm-Mediated Bacterial Resistance. Evidence-Based Valid Herb Med, 2015, 321-38.

Ahmed A, Dachang W, Lei Z, Jianjun L, Juanjuan Q, Yi X. Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014;27(5 Spec no):1523-8.

Wu CC, Lin CT, Wu CY, Peng WS, Lee MJ, Tsai YC. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2015;30(1):16-26.

Krzyściak W, Kościelniak D, Papież M, Vyhouskaya P, Zagórska-Świeży K, Kołodziej I, et al. Effect of a Lactobacillus salivarius probiotic on a double-species streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans caries biofilm. Nutrients, 2017, 9(11).

Rodrigues JZ de S, Passos MR, Silva de Macêdo Neres N, Almeida RS, Pita LS, Santos IA, et al. Anti-microbial activity of Lactobacillus fermentum TcUESC01 against Streptococcus mutans UA159. Microb Pathog. 2020;1:142.

Wasfi R, Abd El-Rahman OA, Zafer MM, Ashour HM. Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. inhibit growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of caries-inducing Streptococcus mutans. J Cell Mol Med. 2018;22(3):1972-83.

Kriswandini IL, Budi RM, Soesilawati P, Prisca-Suciadi A. Detection of Candida albicans biofilm proteins induced by glucose, lactose, soy protein and iron. J. Clin. Exp. Dent. 2019;11(6):e542-6.

Kriswadini Il, Diyatri I, Tantiana. The forming of bacteria biofilm from S.mutans and Aggr. actinomycetemcomitans as a simple marker for Early Detection in Dental Caries and Periodontitis. Infectious Disease Reports. 2020;12(s1):8722.




How to Cite

I. L. Kriswandini and R. Yuna, “Quorum sensing Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus salivarius (prospects of prevention of dental caries in the future): narrative review”, J. A. Med. Sci, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 20–22, Jan. 2023.