The relationship of serum level of interleukin-4 with the level of anti–hepatitis b antibodies
Keywords:liver infection, antibodies, HBV patient, Iraq
Hepatitis is a liver infection and inflammation that can be acute or chronic with a diverse etiology, including viruses, bacteria, medicines, and hazardous chemicals. Hepatitis B is the most common causes of chronic and acute hepatitis disorders worldwide. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Salahaldeen governorate from 15th of December 2021 to 25th of August 2022.The study included 90 hepatitis patients with hepatitis B, ranging in age from18 to 61 years. These individuals were hospitalized to general Sammarra hospital. The control group, which was matched to the patients analyzed, consisted of 40 people who appeared to be healthy. 5ml of blood was taken from each patient in this study for the purpose of ELISA testing to check HBs Ag, antibodies to both HBs, IL4.The result showed that all patient with hebatitis B had HBsAg and the number of people with HBV in males more than female. The mean serum level of IL-4 in HBV patients was (50.31±16.34) which was lower than that of control (82.97±21.63 pg/ml) with a significant difference. The mean serum level of anti-HBs IgG in HBV patients was (9.48 ±4.1 U/L) which was lower than that of control (14.77±7.22 U/L) with a significant difference.
Jia-Horng K, Ding-Shinn. Hepatitis B Virus and Liver Disease 1st ed. Springer Singapore, 2018, 38-91.
Haitao G, Cuconati A. Hepatitis B Virus: Methods and Protocols.1st ed. Humana Press, 2017, 10-42.
Thabit MF, Ali MH, AL-Bahadeli NM. Knowledge about hepatitis B Infection among undergraduate medical and health college students, Baghdad. Mustansiriya M J. 2017;16(2):63-7.
Guo H, Cuconati A. Hepatitis B Virus. 1st ed. Springer New York, 2017, 29-40.
Tang LSY, Covert E, Wilson E, Kottilil S. Chronic Hepatitis B Infection: A Review. JAMA. 2018;319:1802–1813.
CDC. Immunization schedules [Internet]. Atlanta (USA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020c.
Cho YK, Song BC. Prevention of viral hepatitis and vaccination. Korean J Med. 2012;82:123-33.
Jo DS, Kim JH, Choi EH, Park SE, Kim YJ, Kim YK, et al. Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: the Korean Pediatric Society. Korean J Pediatr. 2013;56:231-400.
Bruguera M, Cremades M, Salinas R, Costa J, Grau M, Sans J. Impaired response to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in HIV-infected persons. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1992;14:27-30.
Fleming SJ, Moran DM, Cooksley WG, Faoagali JL. Poor responseto a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in dialysis patients. J Infect. 1991;22:251-7.
Rochman Y, Spolski R, Leonard WJ. New insights into the regulation of T cells by gamma(c) family cytokines. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9:480-90.
HBF Hepatitis B test [Internet]. Doylestown (USA): Hepatitis B Foundation, 2018b.
Moorman AC, Xing J, Rupp LB, et al. Hepatitis B virus infection and hepatitis C virus treatment in a large cohort of hepatitis C–infected patients in the United States. Gastroenterol. 2018;154(3):754-8.
Thimme R, Wieland S, et al. CD8(+) T cells mediate viral clearance and disease pathogenesis during acute Hepatitis B virus infection. J. Virol. 2003;77:68-76.
Acerbi G, Montali I, Ferrigno GD, Barili V, Schivazappa S, Alfieri A, et al. Functional reconstitution of HBV-specific CD8 T cells by in vitro polyphenol treatment in chronic hepatitis B. J. Hepatol. 2021;74:783-793.
Ma Z, Cao Q, Xiong Y, Zhang E, Lu M. Interaction between Hepatitis B Virus and Toll-Like Receptors: Current Status and Potential Therapeutic Use for Chronic Hepatitis B. Vaccines (Basel). 2018;6:6.
Isogawa M, Robek MD, Furuichi Y, Chisari FV. Toll-like receptor signaling inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in vivo. J. Virol. 2005;79:7269-7272.
Li HJ, Zhai NC, Song HX, Yang Y, Cui A, Li TY, et al. The Role of Immune Cells in Chronic HBV Infection. J. Clin. Transl. Hepatol. 2015;3:277-283.
Li Y, Tang L, Guo L, Chen C, Gu S, Zhou Y, et al. CXCL13-mediated recruitment of intrahepatic CXCR5(+)CD8(+) T cells favors viral control in chronic HBV infection. J. Hepatol. 2020;72:420-430.
Zhang K, Liu Y, Yang X, Sun H, Shu X, Zhang Y, et al. HBV promotes the recruitment of IL-17 secreting T cells via chemokines CCL22 and CCL17. Liver Int. 2020;40:1327-1338.
Zhang H, Yan X, Yang C, Zhan Q, Fu Y, Luo H, et al. T helper 17 cells recruited by hepatitis B virus X antigenactivated hepatic stellate cells exacerbate the progression of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J. Viral Hepat. 2020;27:1138-1149.
Guidotti LG, Rochford R, Chung J, Shapiro M, Purcell R, Chisari FV, et al. Viral clearance without destruction of infected cells during acute HBV infection. Science. 1999;284:825-9.
Thieme T, Yoshihara P, Piacentini S, Beller M. Clinical evaluation of oral fluid samples for diagnosis of viral Hepatitis. J. Clin. Micro. 1992;30(5):1076-79.
Nokes DJ, Enquselassie F, Nigatu W, et al. Has oral fluid the potential to replace serum for the evolution of population Immunity levels: A study of measles, rubella and Hepatitis B in rural Ethiopia. Bulletin of the World Health organization J. 2001;79(7):588-95.
Tzu-Hsin Tsai, Chien–Fu Huang, James Cheng-Chung Wei, Mei-Shang Ho, Lina Wang, Wei–Yu Tsai, et al. Study of IgG Subclass Profiles of Anti-HBs in Populations With Different HBV Infection Status, 2006.
Yu MC, Yuan JM. Environmental factors and risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:S72-78.
Zeng Z. Human genes involved in hepatitis B virus infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:7696-7706.
Durie FH, Foy TM, Masters SR, Laman JD, Noelle RJ. The role of CD40 in the regulation of humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Immunol Today. 1994;15:406-411.
Nelms K, Keegan AD, Zamorano J, Ryan JJ, Paul WE. The IL-4 receptor: signaling mechanisms and biologic functions. Annu Rev Immunol. 1999;17:701-738.
Iseki M, Omori-Miyake M, Xu W, Sun X, Takaki S, et al. Thymicstromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)- induced polyclonal B-cell activation and autoimmunity are mediated by CD4+ T cells and IL-4. Int Immunol. 2012;24:183-195.
Yin J, Xie J, Liu S, Zhang H, Han L, et al. Association between the various mutations in viral core promoter region to different stages of hepatitis B, ranging of asymptomatic carrier state to hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106:81-92.
Seyed Hedayat Hosseini Khorami, Foroogh Nejatollahi, Mohammad Ali Davarpanah. Serum Levels of Interleukin-4, Interleukin-10 and Interferon in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection, 2018.
Monsalve-De Castillo F, Romero TA, Estevez J, Costa LL, Atencio R, Porto L, et al. Concentrations of cytokines, soluble interleukin-2receptor, and soluble CD30 in sera of patients with hepatitis B virus infection during acute and convalescent phases. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002;9(6):1372-5.
Tzu-Hsin Tsai, Chien-Fu Huang, James Cheng-Chung Wei, Mei-Shang Ho, Lina Wang, Wei-Yu Tsai, et al. Study of IgG Subclass Profiles of Anti-HBs in Populations with Different HBV Infection Status, 2006
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.