Green chiretta (Andrographis paniculata) as medicinal herb
Keywords:Andrographis paniculate, A. serpyllifolia
Green chiretta (Andrographis paniculata) is an annual herbaceous plant and is extensively cultivated in Southern Asia, China and some parts of Europe. Moist shady places, forests, and wastelands are preferable for their well development. This plant grows abundantly in Southern and Southeastern Asia including India, Java, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Indonesia, while it is cultivated in India, China, Thailand, Brunei, Indonesia, the West Indies such as Jamaica, Barbados, and Bahamas, Hong Kong, and the tropical areas in America and also in southwestern Nigeria. In traditional medicine, A. paniculata is widely used to get rid of body heat, dispel toxins from the body; prevent common cold, upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis and fever and as an antidote against poisons of snakes and insects. Andrographis leaf and stem might work by stimulating the immune system. It might also prevent flu viruses from binding to cells in the body. The plant has been reported to exhibit various mode of biological activities in vivo as well as in vitro viz., antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus), immunomodulating/ immunostimulatory and anticancer. The plant showed potential therapeutic action in curing liver disorders, common cough and colds in human. The presence of important phytochemicals in A. paniculata makes the plant useful for treating different ailments and has a potential of providing useful drugs of human use. The quantitative determination of pharmacognostic parameters will help for setting standards for crude drugs.
Akbar S. Andrographis paniculata: a review of pharmacological activities and clinical effects. Alternative Medicine Review, 2011; 16(1):66-77.
Akbarsha MA, Murugaian P. Aspects of the male reproductive toxicity/male antifertility property of andrographolidein albino rats: effect on the testis and the cauda epididymidalspermatozoa. Phytotherapy Research, 2000; 14(6):432-435.
Boopathi C. Andrographis spp.: a source of bitter compounds for medicinal use,” Ancient Science of Life, 2000; 19(3-4):64-168.
Calabrese C, Berman SH, Babish JG. A phase I trial of andrographolide in HIV positive patients and normalvolunteers. Phytotherapy Research, 2000; 14(5):333-338.
Chao WW, Kuo YH, Lin BF. Anti-inflammatory activity of new compounds from Andrographis paniculata by NF-kappaB transactivation inhibition. J Agric Food Chem, 2010; 58:2505-2512.
Chiou WF, Chen CF, Lin JJ. Mechanisms of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide. British Journal of Pharmacology, 2000; 129(8):1553-1560.
Das MPA, Banerjee and Anu. Asian J. Plant Sci. Res, 2013; 3(2):107-111.
Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, Chandanian GL, Panossian AG. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. Phytomed, 2002; 9:589-597.
Geethangili M, Rao YK, Fang SH, Tzeng YM. Cytotoxic constituents from Andrographis paniculata induce cell cycle arrest in jurkat cells. Phytother Res, 2008; 22:1336-1341.
Iruretagoyena MI, Tobar JA, González PA, Sepúlveda SE, Figueroa CA, et al. Andrographolide interferes with T cell activation and reduces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the mouse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 2005; 312(1):366-372.
Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N. Pharmacological aspects of Andrographis paniculata on health and its major diterpenoid constituent andrographolide. Journal of Health Science, 2008; 54(4):370-381.
Jayaprakasam B, Gunasekar D, Rao KV, Blond A, Bodo B. Androechin, a new chalcone glucoside from Andrographis echioides. Journal of Asian Natural Product Research, 2001; 3:43-48.
Kamdem RE, Sang S, Ho CT. Mechanism of the superoxide scavenging activity of neoandrographolide—a natural product from Andrographis paniculata nees. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002; 50(16):4662-4665,
Kokate CK, Puroht AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. Nirali Publication, Pune, India, 2006; 34:251-252.
Koteswara Rao Y, Vimalamma G, Venkata Rao C, Tzeng YM. Flavonoids andandrographolides from Andrographis paniculata. Phytochemistry, 2004; 65:2317-2321.
Kumar RA, Sridevi K, Vijaya Kumar N, Nanduri S, Rajagopal S. Anticancer and immunostimulatory compounds from Andrographis paniculata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2004; 92(2-3):291-295.
Maiti K, Gantait A, Mukherjee K, Saha BP, Mukherjee PK. Therapeutic potentials of Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata: A review. Journal of Natural Remedies, 2006; 6:96-98.
Mishra PK, Singh RK, Gupta A, Chaturvedi A, Pandey R, et al. Antibacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.)Wall ex Nees leaves against clinical pathogens. JPR, 2013; 7:459-462.
Nanduri S, Nyavanandi VK, Thanuguntla SS, Kasu S, Palleria MK, Ram PS, et al. Synthesis ‘and structure activity relationships of andrographolide analogues as novel cytotoxic agents. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett, 2004; 18:4711-4717.
Niranjan A, Tewari SK, Lehri A. Biological activities of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees) and its active principles-A review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2010; 1(2):125-135.
Parixit B, Bharath C, Rajarajeshwari N, Ganapaty S. The genus Andrographis—a review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 4(1):1835-1856.
Patidar S, Gontia AS, Upadhyay A, Nayak PS. Biochemical constituents in Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) Under various row spacing’s and nitrogen levels. World Applied Sciences Journal, 2011; 15(8):1095-1099.
Pholphana N, Rangkadilok N, Thongnest S, Rawat R, Satayavivad J. Determination and variation of three active diterpinoids in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. Phytochem Analysis, 2004; 15:365-371.
Rajagopal S, Kumar RA, Deevi DSC. Satyanarayana, and R.Rajagopalan, Andrographolide, a potential cancer therapeutic agent isolated from Andrographis paniculata. Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology, 2003; 3(3):147-158.
Samy RP, Thwin MM, Gopalakrishnakone P, Ignacimuthu S. Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for the treatment of snakebites in Southern part of Tamilnadu, India J. Ethnopharmacol, 2008; 115:302-312.
Sharma M, Sharma A, Tyagi S. Quantitative HPLC analysis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata at two different stages of life cycle of plant. Acta Chim. Pharm. Indica, 2012; 2:1-7.
Shen YH, Li RT, Xiao WL, Xu G, Lin ZW, Zhao QS, Sun HD. Ent-Labdanediterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata. Journal of Natural Products, 2006; 69:319-322.
Singh RP, Banerjee S, Rao AR. Modulatory influence of Andrographis paniculata on mouse hepatic and extra hepatic carcinogen metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant
status. Phytotherapy Research, 2001; 15(5):382-390.
Singha PK, Roy S, Dey S. Antimicrobial activity of Andrographis paniculata,” Fitoterapia, 2003; 74(7-8):692-694.
rivastava A, Misra H, Verma RK, Gupta M. Chemical fingerprinting of Andrographis paniculata using HPLC, HPTLC and Densitometry. Phytochem. Anal., 2002; 15:280-285.
Tan BH, Zhang A. Andrographis paniculata and the cardiovascular system. Oxidative Stress and Disease, 2004; 14:441-456.
Trivedi NP, Rawal UM. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant property of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) in BHC induced liver damage in mice,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2001; 39(1):41-46.
Wen WC, Yueh KH, Fong LB. Anti-inflammatory activity of new compounds from Andrographis paniculata by NF-κB transactivation inhibition. J. Agric. Food Chem, 2010; 58:2505-2512.
Wiart C, Kumar K, Yusof MY, Hamimah H, Fauzi ZM. Antiviral properties of ent-labdene diterpenes of Andrographis paniculata nees, inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1. Phytother Res, 2005; 19:1069-1070.
Yu BC, Hung CR, Chen WC, Cheng JT. Antihyper-glycemic effect of andrographolide in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Planta Medica, 2003; 69(12):1075–1079.
Zhang X. WHO monograph on selected medicinal plants, World health organization Geneva, 2004, 2.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.