Evaluation of larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities of three plants against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
Keywords:Senna sophera, Mammea americana, Dieffenbachia seguine, Culex quinquefasciatus, larvicidal activity, pupicidal activity, adulticidal activity, phytochemical analysis
Mosquitoes are the most annoying creatures on the planet, causing the spread of deadly diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue fever, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis. The major purpose of the present finding is to evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of the flowers of Senna sophera L. and the leaves of Mammea americana and Dieffenbachia seguine against Culex quinquefasciatus. The fresh plant parts of three plants were collected and tested at different concentrations. All the graded concentrations of three plant parts, i.e., 0.5 ml, 0.6 ml, 0.7 ml, 0.8 ml, 0.9 ml, and 1 ml, showed significant larval mortality. The lowest LC50 value calculated was 0.45 ml, 0.53 ml, and 0.68 ml of flower extract of S. sophera and crude leaf extract of M. americana and D. seguine, respectively. The crude extracts of both leaves and flowers also showed pupicidal and adulticidal activity with LC50 values of 5.83 ml, 6.67 ml, and 5.68 ml; 2.81 ml, 2.34 ml, and 1.14 ml, respectively. The qualitative phytochemical tests are done in the laboratory. The result of phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of secondary metabolites such as saponin, alkaloid, glycoside, carbohydrate, and protein in the crude extract of the tested plant parts of three plants. The dead larvae were also examined under a compound microscope to determine the possible reason for their deaths. The results support the idea that the tested plant extracts can be used for the control of larval and adult life forms of Culex quinquifasciatus.
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